Forgetfulness can be because of:
Colorful veggies: Consume a variety of vegetables, especially cruciferous ones such as cauliflower, broccoli and dark leafy greens to boost memory. Try broccoli-stir fry for dinner or eat a bowl of kale salad.
Eat your berries: Berries such as blueberries, blackberries and cherries are a great source of anthocyanins and other flavonoids that help to boost memory function. You can add a handful of these juicy berries in breakfast cereals, have them as a snack or can bake them into an antioxidant-rich dessert. You can choose fresh, frozen or dried berries and cherries.
Add omega-3 fatty acids in your meals: Omega-3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), help to improve memory and is good for brain health. DHA is the most prominently present fatty acid in the brain and having higher levels of DHA in the blood helps in efficient functioning of the brain.
Fish (seafood, algae and fatty acids) is the main source of omega-3 fatty acids and substituting fish for meat at least 2 to 3 times each week can help in acquiring more of omega-3 fatty acids. Grill, bake or broil fish for maximum health and flavor. Individuals who don’t consume fish can discuss other food options and supplementation with a dietitian/nutritionist at www.firsteatright.com. Seaweed, fish oil or microalgae supplements are other sources of omega-3 fatty acids.
Brain-shaped walnuts: Shaped just like the brain, these walnuts aid in memory and heart health. Eat a handful of walnuts as a mid-morning snack, add them to your salads or eat them along with stir-fry vegetables for added protein.
All these foods help in overall good health apart from working hard for healthy brains. There is no guarantee that eating these foods will help you remember a telephone number next time, but they can assure you a lifetime of health and nutrition.
Almost 40-65% infants suffer from gastroesophageal reflux (GER) between 1 and 4 months and is usually resolved by 12 months of age. Babies having GER spit or regurgitate shortly after every meal as the stomach contents go back to the esophagus and into and out of the mouth.
What Causes GER?
An immature digestive system is the main cause of GER. The muscle that separates the stomach from the esophagus is underdeveloped in some babies and causes undigested stomach content to rise up into the esophagus. This muscle matures between the baby’s 6th and 12th month and hence, most babies don’t have GER by their first birthday with only 1 percent of toddlers having GER.
Reflux is mild, normal and nothing to worry about until your baby is eating happily and growing normally. But sometimes, GER can become severe indicating the chances of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastrointestinal obstruction, which are serious conditions but rarely find their occurrence. It is time to visit your pediatrician if your baby is not gaining weight, spits up green or yellow fluid, spits up large amounts, vomits forcefully (projectile vomiting), refuses food stubbornly or has breathing difficulty after vomiting.
Some tips can come handy to avoid reflux in your little one:
GER to GERD?
Most babies grow out of GER as their gastrointestinal track matures. But, if signs and symptoms of GER continue beyond the first year, specifically when your toddler shows signs of poor growth or breathing problems, it is best to contact your pediatrician immediately. Babies who frequently spit up are likely to acquire GERD as older children.
People face indigestion problems occasionally and it is normal. But, when the frequency increases dramatically, it may be because of a serious condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) which is more prevalent and common in southern India.
GERD is a condition characterized by backflow of stomach acids, food and fluids into the esophagus. This can cause health problems such as inflammation of the esophagus (a potent risk for esophageal cancer), if left untreated. One might also suffer from respiratory problems such as asthma, fluid accumulation in the lungs, chest congestion, wheezing and pneumonia.
What Symptoms Signify GERD?
Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn, bad breath, nausea, vomiting, coughing and abdominal pain. Few symptoms, such as difficulty swallowing and teeth erosion, can happen before or after GERD.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Doctors diagnose GERD based on symptoms and medical history. Sometimes, testing might be required and a gastroenterologist is the right person to do it. A chest X-ray may be taken to detect breathing problems and lung infections or an upper GI-series (digestive organs) X-ray can help you find the problem residing in your body. Endoscopy, a nonsurgical procedure in which a flexible tube passes through the GI tract to take pictures and tissue sample, might be conducted. A pH probe instrument helps to track the flow of acid from the stomach.
Try to overcome the problem without any medication by adopting lifestyle changes. Simple changes include losing weight, quitting smoking, wearing loose-fitting clothes, sitting upright for some time after meals and sleeping with the head of the bed elevated. If none of these options work, then you can go for medication.
Eating the right food at the right time prevents much GERD flare-ups. Try to take smaller meal portions frequently. Fatty foods can aggravate GERD and it is recommended to limit added butter, oil and fried foods in your meal preparations. Instead, choose baked dishes. Lean meats, poultry, fish and beans are good protein sources. Substitute full-fat dairy with low-fat dairy options that are good sources of calcium and vitamin D as these prevent GERD symptoms.
Stay away from chocolate, spicy foods, acidic foods, alcohol, caffeine and mint that can worsen GERD symptoms.
Maintain a food journal of all the things that you eat or drink. Also, note down the symptoms and the foods that cause these symptoms to identify patterns over time. Get in touch with a registered dietitian nutritionist at www.firsteatright.com to help you prepare a customized meal plan avoiding all the GERD-increasing foods yet maintaining optimal health requirements.
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) or Sickle Cell Anemia is a genetic red blood cell disorder in which the blood cells have a sickle or crescent shape. Patients with SCD are often targets of pain, fatigue and infections. SCD is associated with low calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency and poor appetite which can cause delayed growth and development in children.
Children who drink milk may get enough calcium levels but this is not enough. Calcium can aid in building strong bones only when the child’s vitamin D levels are sufficient. Most of the SCD patients have vitamin D deficiency because of their dark skin, absence of dairy intake and reduced sun exposure. When these patients spend some time out in the sun, eat more dairy and drink enough milk, they can get better.
Poor bone density, pain, fractures and muscle weakness are common in SCD patients and vitamin D supplementation for over a period of 6 months can ease pain to an extent. Every person needs a different dose of supplementation and the health care provider is the right person to prescribe accurate dosages required by the body.
Apart from calcium and vitamin D, other nutrients are also essential for total well-being. Physicians are the right persons to guide you after assessing your body. The tips given below can help to fulfill your child’s nutrient requirements:
Though these tips sound to be easy, they are not so easy to practice. Families don’t get enough time to sit and prepare healthy meals when they have a SCD-affected kid. Also, if they do prepare, they don’t feel like eating.
Work with a registered dietitian nutritionist at www.firsteatright.com to understand your child’s unique nutritional needs and plan quick and healthy meals that work good for the entire family.
Originating from the Indian subcontinent and native to Southeast Asia, jackfruit or durian is called the “king of fruits”. This oversized fruit has a strong aroma and is simply disliked my many people just for its pungent odor. Surprisingly, the jackfruit is a multiple fruit containing hundreds of standalone flowers, and it is the fleshy petals that we consume in the name of fruit.
Ripe and unripe jackfruits find their use in the culinary world. The ripe ones are extremely sweet and are used in a variety of dishes, especially sweet preparations. The raw fruit is used widely to make nutritious curries and other spicy recipes.
The unripe jackfruit is gaining popularity worldwide as a meat substitute amongst vegetarians and vegans alike. It has been compared to poultry for its meaty texture and meat-like taste making it a versatile substitute for animal protein. There are other healthy vegetarian substitutes for animal protein and you can check out on these substitutes at www.firsteatright.com. While jackfruit is used as a replacement for meat worldwide only recently, the fruit has already set a benchmark as a meat alternative in Bengali cuisine long back. It is lovingly called as gacch-patha meaning “tree-mutton” in West Bengal and is sought after by vegetarians as an authentic meat substitute.
Moreover, a 100-gram cup of durian contain 3.8 grams of dietary fiber whereas most beef products contain 0 grams of dietary fiber. The only downside to this tasty fruit is its size. People often lack the patience to cut the fruit as the process is time consuming and the white sticky substance that oozes out during the breaking process is loathed by many. To avoid all this, choose the canned (without sugar syrup) or pre-packaged versions of this fruit as per your convenience.
Young women desire to have the body of super-thin models or television personalities. Such inclinations can result in an unhealthy body image, low self-esteem and there is also the possibility of disordered eating behaviors. Disordered behaviors may be anything such as eating too little, too much or sticking rigidly to only “healthy” foods. Symptoms of such disordered eating include rapid weight loss, picky eating and wanting to eat in isolation.
Food is closely linked with body image. Registered dietitian nutritionists are the right people to impart a healthy body image by teaching you to accept your body and by helping you to balance food and emotions. If you are having a negative body image, it is recommended that you get in touch with an RDN at www.firsteatright.com immediately to imbibe a positive and healthy body image. RDNs always insist on the fact that food can be a source of pleasure, health and love.
Body Image is Linked to a Healthy Diet
A healthy diet plan plays a critical role in overcoming a poor body image. Add a variety of nutritious foods such as fruits, vegetables, lean red meat, chicken, fish, vegetable oils, nuts, turkey, fat-free or low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, beans and peas and whole grains. You can indulge in sweets or salty food occasionally to avoid cravings or guilt.
A vegetarian diet provides all the essential nutrients considering that it includes foods such as nuts, beans, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, seeds and fat-free or low-fat dairy or non-dairy substitutes.
The Crux of Physical Activity
Physical activity helps boost body image and relieve stress, when done under optimal conditions. But the same physical activity becomes stressful when the person becomes obsessed with it. Feelings of guilt, depression and overweight in case of missed workout sessions call for immediate attention.
It helps young women to take up some moderate-intensity exercise such as walking, jogging, biking or dancing for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week. This must be combined with resistance training at least two times a week for strong muscles and bones. Free weights, wrist and ankle weights and rubber resistance bands are categorized as resistance training exercises.
Have an Active Social Life
A healthy and active social life lifts a person’s body image. Surround yourself with happy, positive and uplifting friends to be more confident about your body image and to have a positive mind. All these, along with encouragement and support from your loved ones are sure indicators of developing a positive self-image.
A healthy breakfast is the perfect fuel to keep you energized through the busy day. This is the ideal opportunity to sneak in foods that your kids lack in abundance. While a typical breakfast includes whole grains, fruits and low-fat dairy, ethnic breakfast from around the globe can bring in more variety, such as lean protein and even veggies, along with these ingredients. Ethnic breakfast provides a balanced combination of protein and carbohydrate which serve as the platform to provide your kids with the best kick-off to sail through school and play hard all day.
Kids love a medley of dishes and ethnic choices bring in smart alternatives to kids who get easily put off by eating the same thing over a period of time. This is a high-priority issue because the taste of foods is a key factor in what kids do eat or don’t eat.
While kids can eat whole grain cereal or waffles on some days, they can try any of these smart ethnic cuisines put forward by reputed dietitians on other days:
The word “fat” which used to attract negative attention and was pegged as bad news has changed recently.
Include fats in your meal if you want a lean, mean and a fighting-machine body. Also if you simply want to get-it-together to feel better and have more energy, fat should be a part -of your plate. But the key here is to pick the right fat and not any kind of fat.
The Top Picks
The best fats include omega-3 fats (think fish) and monounsaturated fats (found in nuts, olive and canola oils and avocados) which promote better health and a slimmer waistline.
Most people believe that the first step to a healthy diet is to cut out fats as they equate fats with calories. The reality is that, fat adds to the satisfaction and pleasure of eating. When you don’t feel satisfied after a meal, you keep eating other stuffs until you feel so.
Dietitians/nutritionists feel that men often struggle to keep their weight in check as they don’t want to diet in the first place. Men feel that they can eat salads regularly. But the point here is not about eating light, but about eating right which is feasible with the help of a registered dietitian nutritionist at www.firsteatright.com.
RDNs propose smart tips for men to eat right while incorporating fats, protein and carbs:
Daily calcium needs are hard to meet, especially for kids. Milk and yogurt are excellent sources of calcium, but the challenge here is to make kids consume these foods.
Dairy, one of the five essential food groups that make up a healthy diet, plays a vital part in most of the people’s daily dietary consumption. World acclaimed nutrition organizations recommend dairy consumption of 2 cups for children aged 2 to 3 years, 2 ½ cups for children aged between 4 and 8 years and 3 cups for children aged 9 years and above. Yogurt is an excellent source of dairy which is a healthy, tasty and versatile food to add to your child’s meals and snacks.
Initially, kids might be hesitant to try yogurt because of its unique taste and texture. It is no great science to make kids consume yogurt in a merry way. All it takes is a little innovation and creativity to make it a pleasant experience for your little ones. Assume the yogurt to be a blank canvas and yourself as the artist who is going to create an amazing craft out of it.
Make a Prudent Choice
Choose low-fat or fat-free varieties of yogurt that are plain or flavored. Each cup of fat-free or low-fat yogurt supplies us with 30 to 45 percent of the daily calcium requirements, giving a nutritional bang for our buck. One cup of frozen yogurt provides us with just 10 percent of our daily required calcium intake. Yogurts contain some quantity of sugar naturally, but take care to choose yogurts that contain less than 15 grams per serving. Sweetness can be infused through other simple methods.
The Smooth Smoothie Way
Smoothies are a delicious way to add yogurt in your diet. The perfect way is to let your kids create their own smoothies with different fruits and toppings. To make a smoothie, start with fresh or frozen fruit, low-fat or fat-free yogurt (flavored or unflavored), ice and a dairy-based liquid like fat-fat milk. You can customize your smoothie with nut butters, vegetables, seeds or other flavorings depending on your family’s taste. Finally, mix everything together using a blender.
The same appeal of a smoothie station can be applied on parfaits too! Parfaits are created with layering fruits, low-fat or fat-free yogurt and a grain topping such as whole grain cereal or granola in separate serving cups.
Kids love to brand their creations with stylish names! Let them have fun in creating their healthy smoothie or parfait, noting down the ingredients and finally naming them. This creates a sort of ownership to the dish and can be tried again in the future.
Treat them with icy treats for a quick and simple snack. With ice pop molds, any yogurt can be used as a base. Try flavored yogurt for a simple ice pop, Greek yogurt for extra protein or you can even use leftover smoothie.
Rather than treating yourself to junks like chips or cookies, fruit dips are a healthy snack to increase fruit consumption. Mix 4 cups of yogurt with 1 cup of cream cheese or nut butter. Add honey, granola or berries and serve it with apple slices.
Be smart to substitute half the sour cream in recipes or toppings with non-fat plain Greek yogurt. You can bet on the fact that your kids will never be able to differentiate the taste.
Choose any way, but wisely. Work together with your kids in such a way that they meet their daily dairy needs with fun all along. This helps to gain knowledge about the food they eat while building strong bones and teeth for the future. Read more on meeting your required daily dairy requirements at the website www.firsteatright.com.
Autism Spectrum Disorder or ASD is a complex developmental and neurological condition that shows its appearance within the first three years of a child’s life. The brain is affected, specifically in the areas of social interaction and communication skills.
Symptoms of ASD include:
Gluten is a type of protein found in wheat, rye and barley. Casein is a protein found in milk. It is believed that a gluten-free, casein-free diet reduces the symptoms of autism. Proponents of such diets believe that autism people have a “leaky gut” or intestine which allows parts of gluten and casein to seep into the bloodstream and affect the brain and central nervous system. It is even believed to result in autism or multiply its symptoms. But controlled scientific studies have not proven this to be true. But some people practically following a CFGF diet report improvement in symptoms. Talk to your health care provider or a dietitian/nutritionist at www.firsteatright.com before taking up a CFGF diet as self-prescribed diet changes can result in nutrition deficiencies and other side-effects.
Intervention of a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist
Most children, with or without autism, are choosy about their food choices. A registered dietitian nutritionist is the best person to analyze your child’s dietary intake and identify his nutrient needs. Based on that, an RDN would recommend healthful foods to eat well and live healthfully. You can also clarify your queries about supplements and diet therapies with your RDN.
The ‘World Breastfeeding Week’ is a joint effort by WABA (World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action), WHO and UNICEF. The 25th year of this undertaking in 2017 is about working together for the common good. WABA started this celebration to promote exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months since a baby is born to yield lifelong benefits. WHO recommends supplemented breastfeeding for at least one year and up to two years or more in the best interest of the mother and the child.
In India, more than 26 million babies are born every year which amounts to more than 70,000 mothers needing help and support every day. The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) reveals that close to half the babies born (41.6 % which is 9 million babies) are able to breastfeed within an hour of birth and close to 55% babies are exclusively breast-fed for the first six months, as per WHO recommendations.
Advantages of Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding or nursing is the act of feeding babies with milk from a woman’s breast. Breastfeeding advantages include:
Initiatives by the Indian Government to Promote Breastfeeding
Breastfeeding Promotion Network of India (BPNI), founded in 1991, is a nonprofit national organization that facilitates training of people in nutrition sector through skilled counselling as a sustainable support to mother-baby dyads. Our country’s very first nationwide program “MAA-Mother’s Absolute Affection” launched in August 2016 is in collaboration with BPNI, where in BPNI provides crucial inputs to promote breastfeeding in India.
Recently, the Parliament of India has passed a new policy on maternity protection that permits 26 weeks of maternity leave along with other benefits to all working women. The government further insists all organizations, including private sector companies, to immediately implement this law to enhance breastfeeding rates in India. This venture has received a warm welcome among the entire female population of the country. ‘Vatsalya-Maatri Amrit Kosh’ is the national human milk bank and another lovely initiative by the government to support babies in need of breast milk.
Although the statistics might seem to be low, more women are breastfeeding, especially within the first hour of birth, compared to the situation that existed 10 years back. Women are becoming more aware of the need, advantages and effects of breastfeeding and coming forward to breastfeed their babies. The family should also equally support the breastfeeding mother by providing a calm atmosphere at home, keeping her stress-free and by supporting the mother in every small way possible. Let us create and make way for friendly public places wherein a mother can feed her infant safely and securely.
Most of us are aware that good health is the result of good nutrition and a balanced diet. Still, when we hear phrases such as “calcium deficiency” or learn that a new multivitamin has been released in the market, it makes us doubtful about the effectiveness of the food that we eat. Sadly, the reality is that it is not so effective.
You may be tempted to take a daily dose of any of the single minerals, vitamins or multivitamins/mineral supplements that are available in the supermarkets and drug stores. Dietary guidelines insist on meeting nutritional needs primarily through foods. Individuals should cultivate a healthy eating pattern that comprises of nutrient-dense foods which are packed with the essential vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may bring a positive effect on health. Though individuals may require to supplement their diet sometimes, the safety of consuming such supplements should also be evaluated. This is because, augmented use of some vitamins and minerals may affect health and recommended levels should not be exceeded.
Who are the ones that need Supplements?
The perfect way to stay healthy is to consume a variety of foods from all five food groups. There are various reasons behind the use of supplements and fortified foods in some people due to their incompetency to reach the recommended nutrient amounts. Along with a healthy and balanced diet, these individuals definitely need some form of supplement depending on their situation. Older adults, pregnant women and people who are food insecure are at an increased risk of nutrient deficiencies.
Individuals consuming less than 1,600 calories every day to lose weight, individuals having a poor appetite or having trouble eating because of alcohol or drug use need to speak to their doctor or registered dietitian nutritionist on the need for supplements.
Certain set of people have limited food choices due to allergies, medical conditions or simply because they follow a vegetarian or vegan diet. For instance, animal foods are the main source of vitamin B12, hence people following a vegan diet must eat fortified foods or supplements to ensure that this nutrient is added to their body.
Women around the pregnancy age require adequate folic acid from fortified foods (cereals and other grains), supplements or both, along with the folate they consume from foods in a varied diet. This nutrient is inevitable during childbearing years as it helps reduce the risk of some birth defects. Lab reports showing low iron content in pregnant women indicate that the doctor is sure to prescribe an iron supplement.
Vitamin D is of utmost concern in infants, children and young adults. Breast-feeding infants and children consuming less than the recommended levels of vitamin D-fortified milk or formula and those with increased risk of deficiency need vitamin D supplements. Meanwhile, adolescent girls might need additional iron.
The efficacy of absorbing vitamin B12 and D becomes decreased as people age. Supplements play a crucial role in such cases. Securing vitamin B12 from fortified foods or taking it alone or as part of a multivitamin mineral can help raise B12 in your blood. Try to choose a calcium or multivitamin supplement that also contain vitamin D as a part of it.
Other individuals included under this supplementation umbrella include those who are already under certain medications or having a health condition that changes how their body uses nutrients and individuals already informed by doctors for a specific nutrient deficiency in their body.
Your physician might ask you to take a test to evaluate if taking a supplement would benefit you. Result might be either way, showing that you are low in a certain nutrient or you might be happy to find that you are doing just fine. Along with this, recheck your current eating pattern. An RDN at www.firsteatright.com is the right person to help you evaluate the foods that you eat and make suggestions that comply your personal needs.
Always remember that real food contains healthy things a pill can never supply us with. Taking nutrients from food and filling it in a pill or capsule is never the same. Study your individual situation and discuss with a doctor or an RDN before considering supplements.
It’s the weekend and you are all set to watch a movie after dinner. Just as you settle down, you feel like having a chocolate bar. Is it because of the healthy diet plan you have followed through the week that you feel like taking a break in the weekend or since you haven’t consumed chocolates for weeks? Your mind is steadily building up on the desire. Now, this is real craving! You dig into your kitchen cabinet and pull out a bag of semi-sweet chocolate chips. Once done with it, feelings of relief, guilt and regret follow suit.
Certain dieters associate a craving for certain food as an indication that the body lacks the nutrients provided by that food. As in the above case, a craving for chocolate indicates the need of antioxidants. So, a bowl of red beans which has higher antioxidants than chocolate, should meet your physiological needs but sadly, red beans are down the list in the craving scale.
Registered dietitian nutritionists still debate whether cravings are physiological or psychological. This debate exists because the root cause of a craving remains unsolved. But RDNs feel that it could be a combination of both. Sick children feel better after consuming a bowl of mom’s steaming chicken soup as it relieves congestion and has antibacterial properties. When the same child grows up and falls ill, he/she still craves for the same soup. This is not just for its curative power but also because it brings back memories of being cared for by mom.
When people follow strict diet schedules continuously, they succumb to intense craving cycles and end up in indulging, overeating and guilt. Instead, if your diet adds a small portion of foods you enjoy, such as high-fat, high-calorie foods, it will not end up in cravings as you are not eliminating your favorite foods totally from your life.
If you crave for chocolates sometimes, eat a piece or two of dark chocolate as these contain phytochemicals. These chemicals help to prevent heart disease and minimize the effect of sugar on your teeth. Limit the intake as they add up calories and check the label to make sure that cocoa is the first ingredient on the list and not sugar. If you need help on reading the facts in the Nutrition Facts Panel, please log on to www.firsteatright.com.
Here are other tips for handling food cravings.
Cut down on sugar intake! Cut down on fat consumption! Eat these super foods! This is the current scenario of healthful eating. Every diet book gives you different solutions to the same problem. But, dietitians and nutritionists recommended sticking to the basics of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats and lean proteins for nutritious and healthy eating habits.
Refurbish Eating Patterns
Eminent nutrition academies urge individuals to rethink their overall eating habits instead of focusing on an exclusive low-fat or low-sugar diet. It is not a single meal but our regular eating patterns and lifestyle choices that sketch our overall health. Increase your intake of fruits, veggies, whole grains, beans, low-fat dairy, seafood and nuts while reducing the intake of red and processed meats, sweetened drinks, desserts and refined grains.
Good Fat and Bad Fat
The latest nutrition guidelines insist on including monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as part of a healthy eating pattern, while limiting saturated and trans fat. Be prudent to include fats from fatty fish such as salmon, vegetable oils, nuts and seeds. Make use of the ideas given below to choose the right foods for the right fats:
Most of the individuals fulfill around 13 percent of their daily calorie requirements from added sugars alone whereas, dietitians & nutritionists recommend limiting added sugars to less than 10 percent of daily calories. If the percentage values fall above 10 percent, it becomes tedious to maintain an overall balance on healthy eating patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages, refined grain snacks and desserts contain added sugars while fruit and milk contain naturally occurring sugars and by no means they can be tagged in the ‘added sugars’ category.
In order to reduce the intake of added sugars, you need not scrutinize every food label you come across. There are ‘hidden’ sugars in foods and the simple way to stay away from added sugars is to avoid the big culprits such as sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet snacks and desserts. Incorporate the tips given below to reduce your intake of added sugars:
Dietitian Nutritionist Dr. Nafeesa Imteyaz.